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Quan thoại Đài Loan có là giọng chuẩn của tiếng Hán?

Chủ Nhật 19, Tháng Bảy 2020

ĐÔNG TÁC: Theo SELF-CORPUS trên đất Trung Hoa đại lục hiện nay có tới 71,5% dân số nói tiếng quan thoại mà thuật ngữ quốc tế gọi là Mandarin. Tuy nhiên theo nhiều chuyên gia ngôn ngữ thì phần lớn người Đài Loan nói giọng quan thoại chuẩn hơn cả người Bắc Kinh.

I would say there are about three different Mandarin being spoken in Taiwan, although nowadays, it’s more like two.

One: Standard Republic of China Mandarin (中華民國標準國語)

This was (and still is) considered to be the Standard Mandarin. If KMT [1] had their way during the martial law era (pre-1990’s), every Taiwanese would speak like this. If you listen to this, you might be surprised that the Mandarin spoken sounds not too different from the Standard Mandarin being spoken on CCTV [2]!

The thing is… this form of Mandarin has essentially disappeared in modern Taiwan. You would not find any young Taiwanese who talks like this, with the exception of me. I was brought up in a very strict household where I was taught to speak “properly” (heh), although over time, due to influences of other Taiwanese people, I now speak a weird hybrid mish-mash of standard ROC Mandarin mixed with Taiwanese Mandarin. You want to know what’s odd? As I’ve mentioned before, no young Taiwanese talk like this. I’ve talked to many young Taiwanese before, and I would estimate about 15 to 25% of the young Taiwanese people I talk to don’t even think I’m Taiwanese at first when they hear me speak. You guys have no clue how many times I’ve heard people my age say, “你講話完全不像台灣人!” (You don’t talk like a Taiwanese at all!) On the other hand, middle age and elderly Taiwanese never make this mistake, probably because they still know what the Standard ROC Mandarin sounds like.

Two: Taiwanese Mandarin (台灣國語)

This is the Mandarin spoken by all young Taiwanese today. It has that nasal-like sound, is made fun of by everyone else for being too feminine and cute, and as one of my Quora followers once put it, sounds like a very exaggerated anime girl speaking Mandarin. Once you’ve heard it, you can never forget it.

Starting at about 0:30. Actually, Gao’s accent is a little bit TOO exaggerated. Most Taiwanese don’t sound as exasperated as she does, but it does give you the general ballpark idea of what it sounds like

Third: Taiwanese Accent (臺灣腔)

This is generally spoken by the elderly. These people all speak Taiwanese as their mother tongue, and not Mandarin. As such, the pronunciation of certain sounds is very difficult for them. For example:
F -> hu
R -> l
Ue -> Ie (so 月 to 夜)
No 卷舌 sound whatsoever

Best example of this would probably be Lee Teng-Hui when he still spoke Mandarin as the President:

Skip to 0:30, although if you watch the beginning, you can hear some more Standard Mandarin that has essentially disappeared from modern Taiwan. Lee does have a bit of Japanese accent, too. It’s kind of hard to find a perfect example online, because generally speaking, people who have this kind of accent would just speak Taiwanese when being interviewed. However, if you were to ask them in person and reveal that you don’t understand Taiwanese, you’ll hear them speak Mandarin. As such, it’s much easier to hear this in Taiwan than it is to find a clip online.

Kang-Lin Cheng
Studied at University of California, Irvine (Graduated 2012)

[1Đông Tác: có lẽ viết tắt chỉ chính quyền của thiểu số Quốc dân đảng ̣(KMT: Kuo-Min-Tang) do tổng thống Tưởng Giới Thạch thiết lập thiết quân luật tại Đài Loan sau khi mang quân sĩ bỏ chạy ra đây vào tháng 10-1949. Quốc dân đảng liên tục nắm quyền nửa thế kỷ trước khi bị Đảng Dân chủ Tiến bộ của ông Trần Thủy Biển đại diện cho thổ dân Đài Loan thắng cử vào năm 2000.

[2Kênh Truyền hình Trung Hoa